This guide deals with SD cards for use in the Duet SD card socket, for all Duets including Duet 2 WiFi/Ethernet/Maestro, and Duet 3 running in standalone mode. For Duet 3 boards connected to a Raspberry Pi or other Single Board Computer (SBC), the SD card is put in the SBC, not in the Duet 3; see the Duet 3 documentation for using the Duet 3 in this configuration: Getting Started With Duet 3
All Duets have a built-in micro SDHC card socket. Duet 2 WiFi/Ethernet are supplied with a compatible SD card. Duet 3 is also supplied with an SD card, formatted with two partitions; one for standalone mode, and one for use in a Raspberry Pi in SBC mode.
In normal use, you should never need to remove the SD card from its socket. You can transfer files to/from the SD card over the web interface.
Caution! Do not use an SD extender cable. Such cables do not generally work well at the high SD card transfer speeds used by the Duet. Additionally, some types of SD card extender cable have been found to damage the SD card socket. Damage to the SD card socket from using an extender cable is not covered by the warranty.
It is possible to connect a second, low-speed SD card socket to most Duets (but not Duet 3 MB6HC), either by connecting a PanelDue, a 12864 LCD with SD card socket, or an external SD card reader.
If you need to replace the micro SDHC card, we recommend you choose:
If you need to reformat the micro SDHC card:
These Duets use the following folder structure:
/filaments holds the profiles for any user-defined filaments. See User manual: Filaments
/firmware RepRapFirmware v3.3 and later. This holds firmware files ready for installation, and the in-app programmer (IAP) binary. In RRF v3.2 and earlier, firmware and IAP files are stored in /sys.
/gcodes is used to hold g-code files for printing. You can use subfolders of /gcodes to organize these files. G-code files can also be located on an external SD card if one is connected.
/macros is used to hold used-defined macro files. The names of these files appear as menu entries in DuetWebControl and on PanelDue. You can use subfolders of /macros to organize these files. See Macros for examples of useful user macros.
/menu This holds the files that define the menu layouts for 128x64 pixel monochrome displays. Compatible with Duet 3 mini 5+ and Duet 2 Maestro. For details, see User manual: 12864 display menu system
/sys is used to hold system configuration files and, in all firmware versions before RRF 3.3, firmware update files ready for installation. It should contain at least the following files:
/www folder and its subfolders hold the files served by the web server. If you are setting up a new SD card, populate the /www folder by extracting the contents of the DuetWebControl.zip file to it.
NOTE: the folders /filaments, /firmware, /gcodes, /macros, /menu, /sys, and /www must be named exactly as shown. Sometimes the distribution of configuration files for a specific printer platform will come with the folder named /sys-<printer_type> , so the -<printer_type> must be removed.
The Duet 2 WiFi with pre-1.19 firmware requires only /gcodes, /macros and /sys folders on the internal SD card. These folders have the same function as described earlier on this page. The web server files are stored in file DuetWebControl.bin which is uploaded to the WiFi module.
. ├── filaments ├── firmware │ ├── Duet2CombinedFirmware.bin │ └── Duet2_SDiap32_WiFiEth.bin ├── gcodes ├── macros ├── sys │ ├── bed.g │ ├── config.g │ ├── config.json │ ├── homeall.g │ ├── homex.g │ ├── homey.g │ ├── homez.g │ ├── pause.g │ ├── resume.g │ ├── sleep.g │ ├── stop.g │ ├── tfree0.g │ ├── tpost0.g │ └── tpre0.g └── www ├── DuetAPI.xml ├── css │ ├── Accelerometer.5c60999b.css.gz │ ├── GCodeViewer.9597b317.css.gz │ ├── HeightMap.4d390d72.css.gz │ ├── ObjectModelBrowser.c5e13b42.css.gz │ ├── OnScreenKeyboard.7f43fe4b.css.gz │ └── app.ce075a4e.css.gz ├── favicon.ico.gz ├── fonts │ ├── materialdesignicons-webfont.147e3378.woff │ ├── materialdesignicons-webfont.147e3378.woff.gz │ ├── materialdesignicons-webfont.174c02fc.ttf.gz │ ├── materialdesignicons-webfont.64d4cf64.eot.gz │ ├── materialdesignicons-webfont.7a44ea19.woff2 │ └── materialdesignicons-webfont.7a44ea19.woff2.gz ├── img │ └── icons │ ├── android-chrome-192x192.png.gz │ ├── android-chrome-512x512.png.gz │ ├── android-chrome-maskable-192x192.png.gz │ ├── android-chrome-maskable-512x512.png.gz │ ├── apple-touch-icon-120x120.png.gz │ ├── apple-touch-icon-152x152.png.gz │ ├── apple-touch-icon-180x180.png.gz │ ├── apple-touch-icon-60x60.png.gz │ ├── apple-touch-icon-76x76.png.gz │ ├── apple-touch-icon.png.gz │ ├── favicon-16x16.png.gz │ ├── favicon-32x32.png.gz │ ├── msapplication-icon-144x144.png.gz │ ├── mstile-150x150.png.gz │ └── safari-pinned-tab.svg.gz ├── index.html.gz ├── js │ ├── Accelerometer.4a8a402b.js.gz │ ├── Accelerometer.4a8a402b.js.map.gz │ ├── GCodeViewer.95d3cd80.js.gz │ ├── GCodeViewer.95d3cd80.js.map.gz │ ├── HeightMap.a082b8e6.js.gz │ ├── HeightMap.a082b8e6.js.map.gz │ ├── ObjectModelBrowser.0b9b2798.js.gz │ ├── ObjectModelBrowser.0b9b2798.js.map.gz │ ├── OnScreenKeyboard.a880bca8.js.gz │ ├── OnScreenKeyboard.a880bca8.js.map.gz │ ├── app.24acd1b2.js.gz │ └── app.24acd1b2.js.map.gz ├── manifest.json.gz ├── precache-manifest.a4ab8f573fcc203b798fa7d11eee39d5.js.gz └── service-worker.js.gz
A faulty SD card can cause a wide range of strange behaviour: inaccessible DWC, config.g not run at startup, slow downs printing, network disconnections, slow file transfer, corrupted files and almost any other problem that relies on accessing the SD card.
M122 to the Duet (via the web console, or connect via USB using YAT or similar serial terminal software) and look for the 'SD Card' entries. A normal response should look something like:
SD card 0 detected, interface speed: 20.0MBytes/sec SD card longest block write time: 5.1ms, max retries 0
If it responds with "SD card detected" in M122, it indicates that the Card Detect pin of the SD card is working (this is also the pin whose soldering causes the most trouble; see below).
The interface speed in the same line gives an indication of whether the processor is able to communicate with the SD card at all. It should be 20MB/sec on a Duet WiFi/Ethernet, 15MB/sec on a Duet Maestro, 25MB/sec on Duet 3 MB6HX or MB6XD in standalone mode, and 22.5MB/sec on a Duet 3 Mini in standalone mode. Other numbers, eg 12MBs/sec, are odd and suggest an issue with the SD card. If the socket or processor is faulty but the card is detected, it usually drops to 0.2MB/sec.
A card with very little space will cause file fragmentation, and make reading the card slow. Send
M39 to report the SD card information:
M39 SD card in slot 0: capacity 3.97GB, free space 3.81GB, speed 20.00MB/sec, cluster size 32kB
You can run a speed test on the SD card by sending:
M122 P104 S[file size in MB]
For example (Duet 3 Mini 5+ using RRF 3.4.2):
M122 P104 S10 Testing SD card write speed... SD write speed for 10.0MByte file was 2.91MBytes/sec Testing SD card read speed... SD read speed for 10.0MByte file was 1.58MBytes/sec
Speeds reported should usually be between 2 and 2.5MBytes/sec for the write speed, and lower for the read speed. For example, Duet 2 WiFi - 2.23MBytes/sec, Duet Maestro 2.42MBytes/sec for a 10MB file. The read speed is expected to be lower than the write speed. This is because RRF uses a large write buffer (usually 8kB) to speed up file uploading. Reading doesn't normally need to be as fast, so the buffer is only 512b.
Stuttering during printing can be caused by the SD card not supplying the motion planner with data quickly enough, another sign that the SD card may be under-performing. Run
M122 from the console during a print, and look for "Underruns" in this line:
## DDARing Scheduled moves: 1295584, completed moves: 1295544, StepErrors: 0, LaErrors: 0, Underruns: 80, 300
The first value isn't a warning, just an indication that the lookahead function couldn't do something with the time given. It doesn't slow down the print, but is likely not ideal. The second number is a 'prepare move' underrun, which means that the move could not be prepared in time and so the movement must wait. This is much worse than the first one. Try replacing the SD card if you get these.
You can force the SD card to unmount and mount, using M22 to unmount, M21 to mount. Any error message generated may be helpful in determining if the card is being read at all or not.
You can run a diagnostic test on your SD card using H2Testw (Windows only) (link to download page)
Warning: Only 4461 of 7428 MByte tested. The media is likely to be defective. 4.3 GByte OK (9136127 sectors) 0.5 KByte DATA LOST (1 sector) Details:0 KByte overwritten (0 sectors) 0 KByte slightly changed (< 8 bit/sector, 0 sectors) 0.5 KByte corrupted (1 sector) 0 KByte aliased memory (0 sectors) First error at offset: 0x000000008123ff80 Expected: 0x04c122acee44af80 Found: 0x27a7a1cd8943af80 Reading speed: 66.8 MByte/s
Some boards have poorly soldered SD cart sockets, with the pins on the back of the socket making poor or no contact, causing erratic behaviour or unable to read the SD card at all. Boards with this issue will be replaced under warranty. The picture below shows the pins on the right are not making contact.
Check if the SD card socket is getting hot. This can be caused by a short from VIN (12 or 24V) to the 5V or 3.3V rail or a failure of the 5V or 3.3V regulator. This is usually terminal for the Duet, as the WiFi board (if fitted) and main processor may also be getting hot, due to over-voltage short circuit damage. The SD card may also be damaged, and the Duet will likely be unresponsive. See What to do if your Duet won't respond and How to destroy your Duet
After you have uploaded a large file to the SD card, you may find that Duet Web Control disconnects with a timeout error whenever you try to switch to the GCode Files page.
This issue is triggered by the combination of a large GCode file with a small cluster size. Duet Web Control attempts to extract details about the print from the end of the file, and the nature of the FAT filesystem used on SD cards can make this a very slow process.
A workaround is to reformat the SD card to use a larger cluster size. Here's how:
The speed of uploading to the SD card over the network depends on both the network speed and the SD card write speed. If upload speeds are slower than expected:
The results will tell you whether the SD card or the network is the bottleneck. With a strong WiFi signal, the WiFi upload speed should be around 0.7MBytes/sec or a little better. Using Ethernet, the speed may be in excess of 4MBytes/sec on Duet 3 boards.